Following are two passages from Florence Nightingale’s Notes on Nursing:
Now the medical man who sees the patient only once a day or even only once or twice a week, cannot possibly tell this without the assistance of the patient himself, or of those who are in constant observation on the patient. The utmost the medical man can tell is whether the patient is weaker or stronger at this visit than he was at the last visit. I should therefore say that incomparably the most important office of the nurse, after she has taken care of the patient’s air, is to take care to observe the effect of his food, and report it to the medical attendant. (1860, Section VII, para.14)
To be “in charge” is certainly not only to carry out the proper measures yourself but to see that everyone else does so too; to see that no one either willfully or ignorantly thwarts or prevents such measures. It is neither to do everything yourself nor to appoint a number of people to each duty, but to ensure that each does that duty to which he is appointed. This is the meaning which must be attached to the word by (above all) those “in charge” of sick, whether of numbers or of individuals. (1860, Section III, para.25)
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Answer the following:
- Is passage 1 an argument or an explanation?
- Is passage 2 an argument or an explanation?
You must answer both questions by making an argument for your position. Whichever type – argument or explanation – you find the passage to be, you must write an argument that will prove your answer to be correct.