Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?
The appropriate design would be a quantitative experimental design because it would be necessary to prove causality(Gray,2016). The strengths would be that the data collected can show objectivity, it is numeric so it can be a large sample and put into illustration for improved comprehension, collection of data can utilize technology for quick results, and numerical data is often viewed as credible. Weakness can be due to sample size or possibly be biased. It is also important to provide earlier tested results for comparison(Overview, n.d.). This type of study was selected because it is a cause and effect study that would be preferred to get a straight forward numerical value as well as to find earlier supportive studies for additional proof.
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How effective are anti-depressive medications on anxiety and depression?
I believe the appropriate design would be a quantitative experimental design. The strengths and weaknesses would be the same as the above question; however, in terms of numerical data; however, the testing utilized could be subjective or at least not void of human error. For example, the use of a HADS-D(Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) is a questionnaire subject to interpretation by the patient(Jani,2015). I believe this is the appropriate design due to the numerical data produced. Regarding medications, I feel as though this is the only type of study that should be done because of the clinical significance, especially if it is a drug trial for a new therapy.
What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?
I feel that a quantitative correlational design would be appropriate for testing the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer. The benefit of this type of research is that the researcher does not have to set up the experiment. The researcher can use prior studies to support the theory(Shield,2016). The weakness of this type of study is that there may not be enough data to influence the reader to believe there is a relationship. The researcher may conclude that further, more specific experimental designs may be necessary to confirm the prediction(Shield,2016). To help to support the use of this design is the ability to utilize numeric data from prior studies that also may include linear regression to sway the reader. The essence of the correlational design is to prove a relationship, hence the reason I chose it(Gray,2016).
1. Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective in preventing nosocomial infections?
The appropriate research design for this study would be a quantitative design. According to Gray, Grove & Sutherland (2016), quantitative designs answer questions by counting or measuring. This study will use a numerical count with the measurement of the number of patients developing nosocomial infections compared to the numerical value of those who do not develop nosocomial infections. The Scientific Method can also be used for this study by testing a hypothesis. According to Gray, Grove & Sutherland (2016), there are several different types quantitative research which include descriptive research, correlational research, experimental research, and quasi-experimental research.
Testing soap and water versus alcohol-based rub and the prevention of nosocomial infections can be done through Quasi-experimental research. According to Gray, Grove & Sutherland (2016), quasi-experimental research is often completed in the work setting to test a new method of care to see if it provides better outcomes than a previous used method. This study will likely take place in the hospital setting. It will test alcohol-based foam versus the previous method of hand washing and their preventative effects on nosocomial infections.
With research, there are always strengths and weaknesses. According to “Quasi-Experimental Design – Experiments without randomization” (n.d.), Quasi-experimental research is useful in identifying general trends, results can be used to reinforce findings, research can be tailored, difficulty and ethical concerns are reduced, and an artificial testing environment is not used.
Some weakness are found in quasi-experimental research. Pre-existing factors along with other influences are not taken into effect, human error plays a key role, adhering to ethical standards can be difficult, there is no random test group assignment, and the statistical analyses may not always be valid due to the lack of randomization (“Quasi-Experimental Design – Experiments without randomization,” n.d.).
I believe that using a quantitative design with quasi-experimental research would produce valid results. I think that the age and health of patients should be taken into effect prior to selecting the subjects involved. A young healthy teenager with a healthy immune system, would not be as prone to a nosocomial infection as an 80-year-old diabetic would be. All participants in the study would have to agree to all ethical standards and do their best to follow the protocols of the study to reduce human error.
2. What is the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer?
I believe this study would be completed in a quantitative design using correlational research. Correlational research allows the researcher to measure numerical strength between variables and relationships (Gray, Graves & Sutherland, 2016). According to Gray, Graves, & Sutherland (2016) it has been used since the 20th century and focuses on the relationships between interventions, disease, treatments, and outcomes.
According to Gray, Graves & Sutherland (2016), correlational research uses a -1 to +1 scale. If the results are -1 then this is called a perfect negative meaning that there is an inverse relationship, and if the results are +1, then there is a perfect positive correlation proving that both variables increase (Gray, Graves & Sutherland (2016). The result can also be 0 meaning that no relationship between variables was found.
According to Filipowich (2018), correlational research occurs outside the lab which makes it applicable to everyday life, it provides a good starting relationship, and offers a pathway for further research to find a definite cause. A few weaknesses of correlational research are that it does not find conclusive reasoning or reveal which variable influenced the other.
I believe that the relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer can be completed with a quantitative study using correlational research since the relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer development is being tested. This will be a building block for further research so more studies to find a cause can be completed.
3. What is the difference in attitudes of male and female college students toward condoms?
I believe this can be testing using qualitative research. According to Gray, Groves, & Sutherland (2016), qualitative research is completed in a natural setting while assessing life experiences, social processes and different cultures by analyzing the opinions of the persons involved. In qualitative research, concepts are not measured, and statistical analyses are not completed. Insights from qualitative research allow healthcare providers to gain an understanding of the patients needs and assists in guiding theory (Gray, Groves & Sutherland, 2016). Qualitative research can be completed by many methods which include, Phenomenological research, Grounded Theory Research, Ethnographic-Descriptive Research, Historical Research, and other approaches (Gray, Graves, & Sutherland, 2016).
I believe this study could be completed using phenomenological research. According to Gray, Graves & Sutherland (2016), phenomenological research describes experiences from the subjects perspective through real life experiences. “Phenomenology has been the philosophical basis for many studies conducted by nurses” (Grays, Groves, and Sutherland, 2016, p.66).
According to “Phenomenology – Research Methodology” (n.d.), phenomenology can look at processes over time, help understand peoples’ meanings, help adjust to new issues, and it can contribute to new theory development. These studies can be fast and economical but can have some disadvantages as well. According to “Phenomenology-Research Methodology” (n.d.),
It can take a while to gather the data and the analysis of the data an be difficult. Methods also tend to be flexible and artificial.
I believe this study can be done in a qualitative manor backed by phenomenology. Opinions and perspectives will be observed to determine the differences in attitudes.