Fluid Electrolytes Handout && Urinary and Bowel Handout

Fluid & Electrolytes Handout

Please answer all questions in your own words. No citations are needed for this assignment as the answers are located in your textbook. Please ensure your answers are brief so they will fit inside each box.

1. Please complete the table below

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TermDefinition
Albumin
Anasarca
Colloids
Extra cellular fluid (ECF)
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
Hydrostatic pressure
Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Isotonic
Interstitial fluid
Osmolarity
Osmolality
Aldosterone
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

2. Which fluid makes up 2/3 of the body’s fluid?

3. What is the purpose of fluid constantly move among ICF, ECF and interstitial spaces?

4. Which fluid is more likely going to be affected by major fluid shifts such as vomiting?

5. Define the following terms

Osmosis
Diffusion
Filtration
Starling’s law of the capillaries

6. Which gland secretes aldosterone?

7. When is the release of aldosterone triggered?

8. Which organ synthesizes ADH and which organ secretes it?

9. What triggers the release of ADH?

10. Is ADH involved in the renin angiotensin system?

11. Which gland produces and secretes cortisol?

12. What is the role of cortisol in the body?

13. How is cortisol involved in fluid balance?

14. What type of hormone is ANP?

15. Does ANP cause an increase or decrease in blood volume and B/P and how?

16. How can the nurse promote the release of ANP?

17. How is the ANP hormone involved in fluid balance?

18. How does the thirst mechanism control fluid balance?

19. Which organ controls thirst and how?

20. What is the BNP hormone and how is it involved in fluid balance?

21. Why is capillary fluid movement important in fluid balance?

22. FluidExampleUsesNursing Implications
Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
23. ConditionAssessment Early SignsAssessment Late SignsType of fluid replacement
Dehydration
Fluid volume deficit
Fluid volume excess
24. TermSigns and SymptomsTreatment
Hyponatremia
Hypernatremia
Hypokalemia
Hyperkalemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypercalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
Hypermagnesemia
Hypophosphatemia
Hyperphosphatemia
AgeRisk Factors of fluid imbalanceNursing implications
Infants 0 – 12 months
School age children
Adolescents
Adults
Older adults

25. Of the five age considerations in the above table, which two are most at risk for fluid imbalance and what would be your nursing considerations for these patients?

26. Which patients would be candidates for fluid restriction therapy and what other diet restrictions would be implemented to control fluid intake?

27. Which patients would be candidates for therapy to promote excretion? What type of therapy would be used and what medications can be administered to promote urinary excretion?

28. How is protein intake involved in fluid balance?

29. How would you monitor a patient on fluid balance therapy (whether fluid restriction or to promote excretion)? Give five assessment parameters e.g. assessing for dyspnea etc.

30. What is the difference between respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis?

31. What is the difference between metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis?

32. DisorderClinical ManifestationsNursing Interventions
Respiratory acidosis
Respiratory alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic alkalosis

Interpret the following ABG results:

33. pH= 7.40 PCO2 = 39mmHG HCO3- = 25mEq/L

34. pH= 7.30 PCO2= 70mmHG HCO3- = 30mEq/L

 
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