Differences between type i and type ii diabetes

DIFFERENTIATING TYPE I & TYPE II DIABETES

TYPE I DIABETES:

Cause:

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-Autoimmune destruction of beta cells

-Possible result from gene-environment interaction (autoimmune destruction) or idiopathic

-HLA-DR3 or 4 gene present

-Severe, absolute lack of insulin from loss of beta cells

-Onset: 11-13 years old

· Symptoms/Manifestations:

· Hyperglycemia

· Weight loss

· Breakdown of fat = ketone production = acidosis

· Breakdown of protein

· Polyuria / Polydipsia / Polyphagia

· Fatigue

· Treatment:

· Insulin

· Meal planning

· Exercise

· Pancreas transplant possible

TYPE II DIABETES

Cause:

· Risk factors: obesity, family hx, female, ethnic minority

· Unknown cause — Possible genetic susceptibility and environmental factors

· Insulin resistance / Increased glucagon secretion

· Beta cells less responsive to elevated glucose

· Onset: 40 or > years old

· Symptoms/Manifestations:

· Hyperglycemia

· Fatty liver Cirrhosis

· Weight gain

· Infection

· Visual changes

· Polyuria / Polydipsia / Polyphagia

· Fatigue

· Treatment:

· Oral hypoglycemic agents +/- insulin

· Meal planning / Diet

· Exercise

 
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