Assignment: PICOT/Research Question
Assignment: PICOT/Research Question
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In adults 65 years and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, how effective are the use of
dietary supplements, such as cinnamon, compared to medication alone, such as insulin
therapy/oral hypoglycemics, in the prevention of diabetic complications within a one-year
period? Assignment: PICOT/Research Question
P Adults 65 years and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus
Age is one of the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes with
individuals in older age groups assuming a high burden of disease. Selvin
and Parrinello (2013) stated that in the US, adults aged 65 or older had 20%
prevalence of diabetes in 2011 versus the 2.4% disease prevalence found
among adults 18 to 44 years of age.
I Dietary supplements like cinnamon
It is believed that dietary supplements like cinnamon help patients to control
blood glucose. Hasanzade et al. (2013) stated that traditional herbs and
spices such as Ròu Guì and Cinnamomum cassia are commonly used for
control of glucose. They also stated that cinnamon was the most bioactive
among spices such as mint, green tea, and carnation.
Commented [RC1]: Where is the title page?
Commented [RC2]: Page numbers are missing!
Commented [RC3]: Each element is identified from the PICOT question
Commented [RC4]: Each element is supported by a reference.
Commented [RC5]: Good use of APA format! You don’t need to use a different reference each time, but
each section should be supported with a reference
C Insulin/Oral hypoglycemic medications
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Insulin and/or oral glycemic medications are universally used to treat and
manage diabetes due to their ability to control blood sugar levels. Insulin
offers a unique ability to control hyperglycemia when used from the time of
diagnosis and when metabolic control is disturbed by medical illness,
procedures, or therapy, as well as in the longer term (Home et al., 2014).
O Prevention of diabetic complications
The ultimate goal of diabetes management is prevention of long-term
complications. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to a number of short and
long-term health complications, including hypoglycemia, heart disease,
nerve damage, limb amputation, and vision problems. According to Vinik &
Vinik (2003), chronic complications can be devastating to patients with
diabetes mellitus. The major cause of morbidity and mortality among these
patients are complications such as cardiovascular illness, macrovascular
disease, and microvascular disease, with retinopathy, nephropathy, and
T Within a one-year period
There is no set time frame for diabetic complications to occur. It all
depends on how uncontrolled the management has been. The duration of
diabetes and the degree of glycemic control achieved are noted to be risk
factors for complications (Nickerson & Dutta, 2012).
Hasanzade, F., Toliat, M., Emami, S. A., & Emamimoghaadam, Z. (2013). The effect of
cinnamon on glucose of Type II diabetes patients. Journal of Traditional and
Complementary Medicine, 3(3), 171–174. https://doi.org/10.4103/2225-4110.114900
Home, P., Riddle, M., Cefalu, W. T., Bailey, C. J., Bretzel, R. G., Del Prato, S., Leroith, D.,
Schernthaner, G., van Gaal, L., & Raz, I. (2014). Insulin therapy in people with type 2
diabetes: Opportunities and challenges? Diabetes Care, 37(6), 1499–1508.
Nickerson, H. D., & Dutta, S. (2012). Diabetic complications: Current challenges
and opportunities. Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 5(4),
Selvin, E., & Parrinello, C. M. (2013). Age-related differences in glycemic control in diabetes.
Diabetologia, 56(12), 2549–2551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-3078-7
Vinik, A. I., & Vinik, E. (2003). Prevention of the complications of diabetes. The American
Journal of Managed Care, 9(3 Suppl), S63–S84.
Commented [RC6]: The reference page starts on a new page.
Commented [RC7]: References placed in alphabetical order
Commented [RC8]: References follow APA 7e format
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